English Name: Prickly ash, Nepal Pepper, Toothache tree, Sichuan Pepper, Parts Used: Roots, bark, leaves, fruits, seeds, Habit and Habitat: Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), N India, east to China. This One Trick Got My Hydrangea Cuttings Rooting Like Crazy! Please note that a BioOne web account does not automatically grant access to full-text content. The discussions and interviews were complemented with semistructured interviews of key informants who had specific knowledge of timur production and trade, such as members of forest user committees, traders, forest service personnel, and political leaders. Our all products are 100% organic and have a lot of natural effects on health. In the case of trees growing on private land, however, farmers own both the land and the tree products. The bark is pungent and used to clean teeth. Thus, several factors contributed to gradual intensification in the management of timur. These lands have different forms of tenure and are under different access regimes, resulting in different ways of exploiting and managing timur. Sarkari ban is viewed as the property of the government by both Forest Department staff and local people. On the other hand, indigenous FUGs make their own decisions about forest use, while acknowledging that the Forest Department does impose controls. During the last two decades, the market price of timur has been increasing considerably. Habit and Habitat: Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), N India, east to China . Furthermore, usufruct rights to timur are not rigid and are neither exclusively private or community or government controlled. The collectors receive 50% of the collected products. The fruits and seeds are used as an aromatic tonic for fever and dyspepsia. It has happened to us and many other people we know. The claim entails exclusive and private usufruct rights, but regulations for collecting timur are similar to those in the rest of the hamro ban forest. Timur flowers regularly around April to May and produces constant fruit yields over the years. Although it is known that induced innovations in forest management may occur, for most NTFP species, it is not yet clear whether such changes are taking place, and if so, what the precise nature of those changes is and which factors influence them. Several authors have suggested that extraction of NTFPs from natural forests should not be conceived as a discrete activity but rather as the first stage in a process of gradual domestication of valuable NTFP species (Homma 1992; Wiersum 1996). Create a new folder below. Most of this manufacturing takes place in India, which therefore has a well-established commercial outlet for dried timur fruits (Edwards 1996; Den Hertog 1997). He was a member of the Barlas, a Mongolian tribe that had been turkified in many aspects. The user groups may also decide that the forest is closed for timur collection until the fruit is mature. The main contrast with indigenous FUGs is that the forest user committee of a community forest is recognized and sponsored by the state. The Timur berry grows on the Zanthoxylum armatum, a thorny shrub which grows at altitudes of around 2,500 metres. English Name: Prickly ash, Nepal Pepper, Toothache tree, Sichuan Pepper. As indicated by the example of timur, these different phases are not discrete. Your use of this feature and the translations is subject to all use restrictions contained in the Terms and Conditions of Use of the BioOne website. Nepali Mann Udhyog was established in 2010. The oil obtained by steam distillation of the fresh plant shows antifungal activity. An important reason for growing timur on these lands is that its private ownership allows for optimal management. The gradual shift from a subsistence economy to commercialization, together with increasing opportunities for wage labor, stimulated a more efficient input of labor for timur collection on both private and community-controlled land. When prices continued to increase, farmers also began to transplant timur seedlings from the forests onto their own farmland. Recipe. And the shrubs are hardly disturbed because animals do not usually browse the thorny shrubs, while timur collection for fuelwood has stopped. Within the study area, five communities with a total population of approximately 2100 persons were selected on the basis of different property regimes and access situations with regard to collection of timur. The second category of government-owned forests is controlled de facto by local FUGs. This is because sarkari ban forests are located at a greater distance from the villages, making specific collection trips unattractive and limiting harvests to small quantities collected in addition to other activities. Many of these practices are socially oriented and ensure distribution of forest products to local user groups as well as control of outsiders. Besides this financial aspect, farmers also indicated several other factors that contributed to the intensification of timur management.
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